Monthly Archives: August 2017

Diesel Engines And Well Known Gas

In passenger cars, the diesel engine has never really
caught on. During the middle to late 70s, diesel
engines in passenger cars did notice a surge in
sales due to the OPEC oil embargo, although that is
the only real significant penetration that diesel
engines have made in the market.

Although diesel engines are more efficient, there
are eight historical problems that may have held
them back.
1. Due to the higher compression ratios,
diesel engines tend be heavier than the equivalent
gasoline engine.
2. Diesel vehicles and diesel engines tend to
be more expensive than gas.
3. Because of their weight and compression
ratio, diesel engines tend to have lower RPM ranges
than gas engines. This gives diesel engines more
torque rather than higher horsepower, and this tends
to make diesel vehicles slower in terms of acceleration.
4. Diesel engines have to be fuel injected,
and in the past fuel injection was very expensive
and less reliable.
5. Diesel engines tend to produce more
smoke and smell very funny when compared to gasoline
engines.
6. They are harder to start in cold weather
and if they contain glow plugs, the diesel engines
may require you to wait before you start the
engine so that the glow plugs can heat up.
7. Diesel engines are much noisier than
gas engines and tend to vibrate quite a bit.
8. Diesel fuel is less available than gas.

Although one or two of these disadvantages would be
acceptable, a group of them is a big turn away for
many people.

Even though the list above are reasons in the past
as to why diesel never really took off, you can
expect these reasons to get corrected and improved
in the future, meaning that you will see more and
more diesel vehicles on the road.

Caterpillar Equipment

Caterpillar Incorporated, also known as CAT is a
United States based corporation that is based in
Peoria, Illinois. The company commonly known as CAT
is known around the world as the largest manufacturer
of construction and mining equipment, diesel and
natural gas engines, and industrial gas turbines.

Well known and famous for their products that feature
the Caterpillar track and distinctive yellow paint,
CAT produces a wide range of heavy equipment for
all types of jobs, including the very popular
Caterpillar D9 bulldozer.

History
The story of CAT dates back to the late 19th century,
when Daniel Best and Benjamin Holt were experimenting
with different ways to fulfill the promise that
steam tractors held for farm work. Prior to 1925,
the Holt family had pioneered track tractors and
gasoline powered engines. After the companies of
Best and Holt were merged, the company went through
several changes then at the end of World War 2,
they began to grow at a very fast pace, launching
the first venture outside of the country in 1950,
which marked the beginning of CAT development into
a big corporation.

CAT equipment ranges from track type tractors to
hydraulic excavators, backhoes, motor graders, off
road trucks, wheel loaders, tractors, diesel and
gas engines, and gas turbines. CAT equipment is
used in construction, excavation, building roads,
mining, energy, forestry, transportation, and
material handling companies.

Sales
Over half of CAT’s sales are to customers in overseas
areas. CAT products are sold in almost 200 different
countries. The company has a worldwide network
of over 200 dealers – 63 in the United States and
over 150 in other countries. CAT equipment and
components are manufactured in 42 plants in the
United States and 58 plants in Australia, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, England, France, Germany, India,
Japan, Mexico, and several other countries.

Labor
CAT almost went down in the early 1980s due to
the massive union strikes and a down turn in product
demand. At the time, several news reports indicated
that products were piling up so high in facilities
that temporary workers hired to work the lines
could barely get to their stations to perform their
jobs.

In the 1990s, CAT suffered yet another long strike
in which the company hired what it deemed to be
permanent replacements for union workers that
were on strike. During both strikes, jack rocks
were placed in the home entrances of many of
CATs top executives and employees, puncturing
the tires of their vehicles and making things
worse for the company.

Not long after the strike of the 1990s ended
and the economy started to get back up again, CAT
adopted the “6 Sigma” quality management program,
to help reduce costs and inventory and identify
and correct the defects in processes and products.

underwater digital camera: capturing moments underwater

Memories are created just about anywhere. And when I say anywhere, I mean that memories are

even created underwater – so the creation of underwater digital camera.

An underwater digital camera is not just used to capture underwater memories; some

professional marine photographers also use underwater digital cameras in their business.

Even marine biologists and scientists use underwater digital cameras to capture marine life

and thus be able to study the life and properties of the marine life. But I think it is

safe to assume that you, my reader, are neither a marine scientist nor a professional

photographer. Like me, you are just some photo junkie who wants to capture underwater

moments and just cant figure out how without ruining your cameras.

Please listen to me when I say that even waterproof cameras cannot withstand underwater

photography. To be waterproof is to resist the water in certain levels, submerging in under

the water to get the perfect shot is like throwing it out of the window expecting a pick-up

truck to pass by and run over it.

Now if you’re really serious about using an underwater digital camera to capture those

wacky and funny moments underwater, I suggest that you buy specialty cameras.

There are rarely underwater digital cameras, as cameras are electronic and cannot withstand

water and water pressure. The closest electronics has ever got to producing underwater

digital cameras are producing underwater casings for digital cameras. These casing will

turn your conventional digital camera into an underwater digital camera.

If you are shooting with your underwater digital camera, you need to take note of a few

things to help you come up with the best images underwater.

Remember that as you farther under water, light diffuses. This means that your underwater

digital camera will produce images darker than those images you took while on land – this

is because of the light diffusion the red spectrum seems darker. To avoid this, use white

balance come up with natural colors. Also, pictures taken underwater will come up larger

than pictures taken on land with the same zoom effect. Be sure to check your underwater

digital camera’s viewfinder to check the right picture angle and size that you want.

An underwater digital camera with its built-in flash will produce marine show phenomenon.

It is a phenomenon wherein your pictures come out as blurry and with white particles

floating above it, to avoid this phenomenon it is advisable to use external flash for your

underwater digital camera.

Before using your underwater digital camera, submerge the camera in the water first for

several seconds then check if there are leaks through the case. Make sure that no grain of

sand or piece of hair is stuck in between the seal to make sure that water will not

permeate the case and thus wet your camera in the process. It is also advisable to put

silica gel or two inside the case of your underwater digital camera as long as they don’t

disturb the camera’s operation. (Silica gel will keep the moisture from forming inside your

camera case.)

Most underwater digital cameras come with optional lenses. Don’t be afraid to add these

lenses to your underwater digital camera kit. Macro lenses will help you capture small

things without getting too close and startling your subject.

Also, remember to always wash of salt when you’ve used it under salt water. If the salts

are not washed off, in time they will crystallize; act as sands and cause leaks for your

camera case. In cases when sands seem to get into the case, they are better washed off with

streams of water.

Gasoline Engines

Gas engines are known as internal combustion engines
and are divided into two general classes, specifically
two cycle and four cycle engines. A cycle of an
engine represents one stroke of the piston or one
half revolution of the crank shaft, as a complete
revolution represents two cycles. With a two cycle
engine, the power impulse occurs at each revolution,
while with four cycle engines it occurs at every
other revolution, hence the terms two and four cycle
engines.

Both classes have their own specific advantages and
uses. For autombiles, the four cycle engines is
most used. For motor boats on the other hand, the
two cycle engine is most often used.

The horse power of gas engines is designated as HP
and also brake test HP. The IHP is the theoretical
HP, which is found by figuring different formulas,
in which the diameter of the bore, length of the
stroke in inches, and number of revolutions per
minute form the basis for calculation. The results
are found by the use of such formulas.

The BTHP on the other hand, is the power the engine
actually develops in service, and is considerably
less than the IHP. Keep in mind, this depends upon
the degree of the mechanical perfection attained in
the construction of the same. If both the compression
and construction are good, the engine may actually
reach 80 – 88% of the intended IHP.

With gasoline engines, high HP and high RPM ranges
are what makes them popular. Gas engines have always
been more popular than diesel vehicles, for the simple
fact that they can achieve more speed. If speed
is what you are after, gasoline vehicles are what
you should be looking for. Although they may lack
in torque and raw power, they make up for it with
speed and tuning options.

Diesel Fuel Quality

The designs of diesel engines striving to increase
performance have made a lot of advancements in engine
fuel delivery to the combustion chamber. The diesel
engines of today are much quieter, smoother, and
also more powerful. The quality of diesel fuel on
the other hand has not advanced at the same rate as
the improvements of engines.

As soon as it is produced, diesel fuel begins to
deteriorate. Less than 30 days of refining, all
diesel fuel, regardless of the brand, goes through a
natural process called oxidation. This process forms
varnishes and gums in the fuel by causing the
molecules of the fuel to lengthen and start bonding
together.

Now, these components will drop to the bottom of the
fuel tank and form diesel sludge. The fuel will
begin to turn very dark in color, smell bad, and
cause the engine to smoke. The engine starts to
smoke as some of these clusters are small enough to
pass through the engine filtration and on to the
combustion chamber.

As the clusters begin to increase in size, only a
small amount of the molecules will get burned, as
the rest will go out the exhaust as unburned fuel
and smoke.

Its estimated that eight out of every ten diesel
engine failures are directly related to poor quality
and contaminated fuel. The build up of contamination
in the fuel systems and storage tanks can clog
filters, thereby causing the engine to shut down,
and damage to the engine to occur.

The number one reason for bad fuel is due to the
increasing popularity of diesel power and the
accompanying increased demand for more diesel fuel.
Long ago, diesel fuel remained in the refinery
storage tanks long enough to naturally seperate and
begin to settle, allowing the clean fuel to be
drawn apart. Now, with the demand getting higher
than ever, the fuel is never stationary long enough
to settle, and the suspended water and solids are
passed on to the person buying the fuel – you.

The changes in refinery techniques is also a
problem. In order to get more products, diesel
fuel is being refined for more marginal portions of
the crude barrel. This results in a lower grade
product that is thicker and also contains a lot
more contamination.

As time continues to pass and technology gets better
and better, one can only hope that the quality of
diesel fuel improves. As it stands now, the quality
isn’t good at all. If you run diesel fuel, all
you can basically hope for is that the fuel you
are getting isn’t contaminated.

Gasoline Credit Cards

With gasoline getting more and more expensive, you’ve
probably found yourself wondering what you can do.
Even with the rising costs of gas and fuel, you
still need it to go places. No matter how you look
at it, you are at the mercy of these prices.

If you own two credit cards, changes are that you
will use one of them to pay for your gas. Gas credit
cards are now starting to shine. There are many
individuals who are planning to apply for a gas
card. Most cards are either issued by a leading
credit card company or by a major retailing gas
station.

Along with that, there are some of the gas credit
cards that give you a great deal like having
discounts on gases such as unleaded, premium, and
others. Gas credit cards also give you an
assurance to have more approved gas bonus.

If the credit card is approved, the owner of the
card will not only save money on gas, but he’ll
also get an extra allowance for car equipment and
accessories. Gas cards can also help you save
a bundle on repairs as well.

Keep in mind that there are some things to consider
when you apply for a gas card. When you plan to
apply for a card, the conditions should always be
known. The benefits of the gas credit cards
available should also be studied and researched
in order to compare rates, features, and
benefits.

As the popularity of gas credit cards continue to
increase, so will the offers. Gas cards also
offer a positive effect for gasoline retailers as
well. The customer will also earn additional
incentives as well. If you plan to stick with
one brand of gas, this card can generate some of
the best rewards.

When looking for the best type of gasoline credit
card, the most important thing to do is review
the terms and conditions. The present status
of the card should also be reviewed in order to
avoid a bad credit record.

There are also several gas credit cards that will
give you extra rewards and point systems. What
this means, is that the card holder can earn
cash back on certain purchases. The more points
you get, the bigger product you can receive.

The ideal purpose of applying for gas credit cards
is to help eliminate the gas expenses. The
credit card should help you to have a deal with
gas expenses. Low interest premium cards can be
the best if you can maintain the proper balance.

The best thing about gasoline credit cards is the
fact that you don’t have to pay for them now and
you can just pay later. Just don’t forget to pay
the bill, as you could end up getting a bad credit
rating.

Gas Diesel Hybrid War

These days, gasoline prices may be crimping your
your household budget. You may like to reduce
the U.S. dollars that flow to the Middle East for
oil, or perhaps you are motivated by your concern
for the environment, or even the nagging reality
that oil is a depleting resource that shouldn’t
be wasted.

Fuel economy
To put it into prospective, the fuel economy are
the numbers posted on the window sticker of a new
vehicle. Studies have shown that the average
driver only receives 75 percent or so of the
mileage figures that are on the sticker.

You can use these numbers to determine the best
type of vehicle for your purchase. The numbers
will let you know how many MPG your vehicle will
get, so you can compare vehicles and then go
from there.

Hybrid pricing
The gas electric hybrid vehicles are normally
priced higher than non hybrid counterparts,
anywhere from a couple of thousand dollars to
several thousand dollars.

Hybrids can get a lot of miles per gallon,
some averaging around 45 – 55. This is great
for those who want to save money on gas, as
hybrids can go many miles on a full tank of
fuel and they come with extended warranties
as well.

Diesel efficiency
Diesel powered vehicles are yet another fuel
efficient option. Diesels are known for getting
extra mileage from every gallon of fuel. They
offer much better torque than many gasoline
engines. The price differential they have
over gasoline engines are usually much smaller
than that of the hybrid.

With plenty of options available, you’re sure
to find what you need to help conserve fuel.
Before you make a purchase, always remember
to shop around and find what’s best for you.